Top 10 programming languages to learn [2020]

There are about 600 programming languages ​​out there. The need and preference for input languages ​​is changing every year. Also, new programming languages ​​come with attractive features.
So, what programming Language should you choose?

Here are top programming languages you should consider

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1. Python

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Python has not seen a meteoric rise in popularity like Java or C/C++. Also, Python is not a disruptive programming language. But from the very beginning, Python has focused on developer experience and tried to lower the barrier to programming so that school kids can also write production-grade code.

Popularity:

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Source : stackoverflow

Main Use Cases:

  • Data Science
  • Data Analytics
  • Artificial Intelligence, Deep Learning
  • Enterprise Application
  • Web Development

2. JavaScript

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Over the years, JavaScript has evolved into a multi-paradigm, high-level, dynamic programming language. The first significant breakthrough of JavaScript came in 2009 when Ryan Dahl has released cross-platform JavaScript runtime Node.js and enabled JavaScript to run on Server Side.

The other enormous breakthrough of JavaScript came around 2010 when Google has released a JavaScript based Web development framework AngularJS.

Today, JavaScript is one of the most widely used programming languages in the world and runs on virtually everywhere: Browsers, Servers, Mobile Devices, Cloud, Containers, Micro-controllers.

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Main Use Cases:

  • Web Development
  • Backend Development
  • Mobile App Development
  • Serverless Computing
  • Browser Game Development

3. Java

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Java has achieved Platform independence by developing Java Virtual Machine (JVM), which abstracted the low-level Operating System from developers and gave the first “Write Once, Run anywhere” programming language. Also, JVM offered generation garbage collection, which manages the Object life cycle.

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Key Features:

  • Java offers a powerful, feature-rich, multi-paradigm, interpreted programming language with a moderate learning curve and high developer productivity.
  • Java is strictly backward compatible, which is a crucial requirement for business applications. Java has never introduced a major breaking change like Python or Scala. As a result, it is still the number one choice for enterprises.
  • Java’s runtime JVM is a masterpiece of Software Engineering and one of the best virtual machines in the industry. With 25 years of innovation and engineering craftsmanship, JVM offers high performance and features to Java. Also, JVM provides some advanced Garbage Collection to Java.

Main Use Cases:

  • Enterprise Application Development
  • Android App Development
  • Big Data
  • Web Development

4. C#

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In 2000, Tech giant Microsoft decided to create their Object Oriented C like programming language C# as part of their .NET initiative, which will be managed (run on a Virtual Machine like Java). The veteran language designer Anders Hejlsberg designed C# as part of Microsoft’s Common Language Initiative (CLI) platform where many other (mainly Microsoft’s languages) compiled into an intermediate format which runs on a Runtime named Common Language Runtime (CLR).

Popularity

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Main Use Cases:

  • Server-Side programming
  • App development
  • Web Development
  • Game Development
  • Software for Windows Platform

5. C

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Over the years, C became one of the most used programming languages. Besides, C is arguably the most disruptive and influential programming language in history and has influenced almost all other languages on this list.

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Main Use Cases:

  • System Programming
  • Game Development
  • IoT and Real-Time Systems
  • Machine Learning, Deep Learning
  • Embedded Systems

6. C++

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C++ also offers full control over hardware but with the cost of accidental complexity and does not provide language-level support for memory safety and concurrency safety. Also, C++ offers too many features and is one of the most complicated programming languages to master.

BEST FOR COMPETITIVE CODING

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Main Use Cases:

  • System Programming
  • Game Development
  • IoT and Real-Time Systems
  • Machine Learning, Deep Learning
  • Embedded Systems, Distributed Systems

7. PHP

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At present, PHP is a general-purpose, dynamic programming language mainly used to develop server-side Web applications.

With the rise of JavaScript based client-side Web application development, PHP is losing its appeal and popularity, and PHP is past its prime. Contrary to popular belief, PHP will not die soon, although its popularity will gradually diminish.

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Main Use Cases:

  • Server-side Web Application Development
  • Developing CMS systems
  • Standalone Web Application Development.

8. Swift

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It is a multi-paradigm, general-purpose, compiled programming language that also offers high developer productivity. Swift supports LLVM (developer by Chris Lattner) compiler toolchain like C/C++, Rust.

Swift has excellent interoperability with Objective-C codebase and has already established itself as the primary programming language in iOS App development. As a compiled and powerful language, Swift is gaining increasing popularity in other domains as well.

Like other modern programming languages, Swift is hugely popular among developers and ranked 6th in the list of most beloved languages:

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Main Use Cases:

  • iOS App Development
  • System Programming
  • Client-side development (via WebAssembly)
  • Deep Learning
  • IoT

9. Go

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Like Swift, Go is only the second programming language from the last decade in this list. Also, like Swift, Go is created by a Tech giant.

In the last decade, Google has frustratingly discovered that existing programming languages cannot take the seemingly unlimited hardware, human resources of Google. For example, compiling the C++ codebase of Google took half an hour. Also, they wanted to tackle the development scaling issue in the new language.

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Main Use Cases:

  • System Programming
  • Serverless Computing
  • Business Applications
  • Cloud-Native Development
  • IoT

10. Ruby

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Ruby is the third programming language in this list developed by an individual developer during the 1990s. Japanese computer scientist Yukihiro Matsumoto has created Ruby as an “Object-Oriented Scripting language” and released in 1995.

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Ruby has not been a hyped language in recent years, but has maintained its traction as per Google trends:

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